The roots of Alexander Herzen’s populist socialism

di Daniele Stasi*

The author describes the roots of Herzen’s political thought and its development after the disappointments of 1848 and, in general, in the mid-nineteenth century. The paper is divided into three parts. The first, describes the controversy between Slavophiles and Westernists regarding relationships with European civilization and the idea of Russian identity that will have a clear influence on Herzen’s thought. In the second part, Herzen’s «philosophy of action» is described as the overcoming of a certain interpretation of Hegelianism, which could represent a philosophical system that in contrast to the affirmation of subjective freedom. In the last part author describes the ideal of populist socialism as a synthesis of western individualism and the harmonious collectivism of Russian rural communities.

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*Daniele Stasi, Professore associato di Storia delle dottrine politiche SPS/02, Università degli Studi di Foggia. Email:

Quale logica per i diritti dell’uomo?

di Paolo Savarese*

The paper revisits, tracing it back to Kant, the link between the acknowledgement of human dignity and the fundamental human rights that formed the basis of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948, considers some authoritative objections and questions the possibility of thinking about a logic of rights. The tension between principles and protections cannot be resolved by reducing rights to a legal technique, even if it is qualified, since translating rights into guarantees is implicit and required by that acknowledgement claimed by Kant. This suggests a specific logic of human rights which, however, remains uncertain if it is based on mere general consensus. This logic must be searched for and deepened starting from the conditions of possibility to demand the acknowledgement of one’s own dignity and to transpose them into essential requirements of the construction of legal-political systems.


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*Paolo Savarese, Professore ordinario di Filosofia del diritto IUS/20, Università degli Studi di Teramo. Email:

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